1. Physical and Technical Basis

   Infrared radiation is the transmission of energy by electromagnetic waves. The wavelengths of this kind of radiation are in the range of 0.7um to approx.80um; they are above those of light which is visible for the human eye. A distinction is made between bright and dark infrared radiators. Elstein infrared radiation elements are dark radiators. Typical bright radiators are halogen lamps.

When energy is transferred from the infrared radiator to the goods, it is essential for economical heating and drying that this transfer takes place with a high degree of efficiency. This efficiency depends on the emission properties of the infrared radiator and the absorption properties of the goods to be exposed to radiation.@

Right picture shows the typical special distribution of the emitted energy for a bright radiator and Elstein infrared elements, each of them related to the wavelength with the hightest special energy density. And this picture shows the special power distribution of Elstein infrared elements at different surface temperatures.


The area below the particular curve is a mesure for the power emitted. The ideal so-called black radiator has the maximum emissivity 1. In practical operation, all substances have a lower value.

Various portions of the energy emitted by an infrared radiator are absorbed or reflected or go through the material to be exposed. Almost all materials to be heated or dried absorb infrared radiation particularly well in the wavelength range of 2 to 10 um. In order to achieve high efficiency when heating goods, infrared radiators should be used whose emission mainly lies within this range.


2. More then 50 years successful with ceramic infrared - radiators@@

 Elstein-Werk was established in Northeim in 1950 as the only manufacturer worldwide specialized in ceramic infrared radiators. As early as in those days we employed our own patents and processes to develop infrared radiators whose design and quality have determined the state of technology until today.

Based on our pioneering work and the continuous development of our products we have been able, in the past and in the present, to discover and develop new applications of infrared engineering which combine outstanding technology with highly economical operation. Today you expect the heating system to be optimally adapted to the heating task when you are dealing with original equipment or the conversion or extension of existing plant or machines. Ceramic infrared radiators made by Elstein-Werk with their verious sizes, wattages and thermal response offer you a wide variety of possibilities to solve your heating and drying tasks.

In the section "applications" you find examples of this versatility. Whether thermoforming of plastics, dashboards or complete boat hulls, or tempering tubes, heating food or drying paint - in all these fields Elstein Infrared Radiators are used successfully.

Decades of experience and technical consulting by competent engineers are of assistance to you any time.



3. Applications

     in plastic industries
  • In thermoforming machines
  • In vacuum forming machines
  • Heating systems for webs of plastic materials
  • In gelling systems for PVC - pasted coatings
  • In machines for shrink wrapping
  • Heating systems for glass fiber reinforced plastic parts
  • In machines for fastening Nylon and Perlon threads
  • Heating systems to activate adhesives
  • Heating systems curing epoxy resins
  • Equipment for melting on sound insulation mats
  • Ovens for preheating plastic pipes when connecting sleeve joints
  • Heating systems for moulded laminates before punching
  in medical technology
  • Equipment for heat irradiation in massage parlours
  • Laboratory equipment for dentistry
  • Infrared warming cabins
  in food industries
  • Baking and browning machines for small cakes and pastries
  • Heating systems for processed cheese
  • Heating systems for masses in dragee containers
  • Heating systems for chocolate coatings
  • Warming systems for large-scale catering
  in surface technology
  • Heating system for melting on powder coatings
  • Ovens for drying latex coatings
  • Ovens for stove-enamelling painted sheet metal parts
  • Ovens for drying glazing on ceramic tiles
  • Ovens for stove-enamelling whirl sinter coatings
  • Ovens for drying and stove-enamelling protective coatings on cans and tubes
  in further industries
  • In paper machines for heating paper machee
  • In equipment for soldering printed circuit boards
  • Heating equipment for glass and ceramic for further processing
  • Equipment for the acceleration of chemical conversions
  • Heating equipment for environmental chambers
  • Ovens for drying raw and printed wallpaper
  • Ovens for drying glued wood and furniture parts
  • Heating systems for after-baking injection moulded parts
  • Ovens for tempering glass
  • Ovens for drying washed fabrics
  • Ovens for drying washed and finished fabrics
This list of applications could be continued further on. It results from the fact that heating or drying systems based on infrared are required in almost all kinds of industrial production, processing or finishing.

4. Frequently Asked Questions


What is the wavelength of Elstein Infrared Radiators?
  Elstein Infrared Radiators are dark radiators and emit radiation in the medium and long-wave infrared range of 2 - 10 µm.

Can Elstein Infrared Radiators be controlled?

  A large number of radiators can be supplied with a thermocouple which is embedded in the radiation surface. In connection with our TRD Temperature Control Units and TSE Power Switches the temperature of the radiators can be controlled with an accuracy of +/- 1°C.
It is also possible to use dimmers for the radiators.

How long is the service life of Elstein Infrared Radiators?

  The service life strongly depends on their thermal load. 10,000 hours can be stated as typical service life. In many cases several times this life is achieved.

Do Elstein Infrared Radiators fulfil Clean Room requirements?

  Yes. For decades Elstein Infrared Radiators have been used in Clean Rooms Class 100 or better. They are used in semiconductor production, in the pharmaceutical industry and in manufacturing picture tubes. Elstein Infrared Radiators are also used in the production of modern TFT displays.

What is the optimal distance between infrared radiators and good to be heated?


In the case of heat-sensitve goods (paper, thin foils) the radiation distance should not be less than 50 mm. If the radiators are not mounted densely next to each other, the distance must be larger if the goods to be heated are stationary. If the distance between radiators is 2 - 3 cm, a distance between radiators and goods of approx. 20 cm is required in order to achieve uniform heating.

Can Elstein Infrared Radiation Elements be used to heat metals?

  Bright metal shows a relatively weak absorption of infrared radiation. However, corroded, roughened, coated, enamelled or painted metal can reach an absorption degree of more than 90%.

Can Elstein Infrared Radiators be used in vacuum?

  This is possible with the exception of the HLS High Performance Radiator.

Are Elstein Infrared Radiators susceptible to splash water?

  When hot, Elstein Infrared Radiators are splash resistant. If the radiators get in touch with water when they are cold, they must subsequently dry at a low temperature (approx. 80°C) for a few minutes.

Questions concerning health?

  Elstein Infrared Radiation Elements are successfully used in warming cabins and therapeutic equipment. The heat radiation emitted by Elstein Radiators has healthy effects. Risks are not known.

Do Elstein Infrared Radiation Elements have explosion protection?

  No. Concerning this subject, please request our "Technical Leaflet M1 (Explosion Protection)".

Are there Elstein Infrared Radiation Elements for special applications?

  Yes. If required we develop and produce economical quantities of ceramic infrared radiators which match the needs of our customers. You will find examples in the section Products - Special Custom.